hardened


hardened
hardened, indurated, callous mean grown or become hard. These terms are comparable in both literal (compare HARDEN 1) and extended use.
Hardened is the most inclusive because it is applicable to any substance, whether originally fluid or solid, or loose or firm in texture, or elastic or inelastic, that has become solider and firmer and increasingly resistant to efforts to cut, pierce, or bend
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hardened soap

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hardened lava

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hardened steel

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Consequently, in extended use hardened usually implies a fixing or setting with loss of qualities (as flexibility, elasticity, pliancy, susceptibility, and impressionableness) indicative of a capacity for change
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hardened beliefs

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hardened distrust

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a hardened criminal

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a hardened heart

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a hardened little reprobate— Thackeray

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Indurated is common in geological and in medical use with the implication of an increase of hardness or compactness usually in something already firm or hard and sometimes to the point of abnormality
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indurated clay

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indurated sandstone

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an indurated abscess

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In its extended use it usually stresses abnormal or excessive hardness or stoniness that repels all efforts to penetrate or to soften
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indurated stoic as I am— Adams

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her husband's indurated conscience— Henry James

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Callous, in its earliest and still common sense, implies a hardening and thickening of the skin by constant pressure or friction and a consequent loss of sensibility in the part affected
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a callous spot on the sole of his foot

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a callous fingertip

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In extended use it usually also implies a loss of sensibility or an insensitiveness that results from constant experience
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he has grown callous to such appeals

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now callous to criticism

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the tiresome and callous repetition of old motives which marked the decadence of the classic tradition— Binyon

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piety ... is made callous and inactive by kneeling too much— Landor

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but sometimes callous means simply unfeeling and carries little implication of the process of hardening
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a callous answer

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Analogous words: consolidated, compacted, concentrated (see COMPACT vb)
Antonyms: softened
Contrasted words: liquefied, melted, thawed, fused (see LIQUEFY): weakened, enfeebled, debilitated (see WEAKEN)

New Dictionary of Synonyms. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hardened — Hard ened ( nd), a. 1. Made hard, or harder, or compact; made unfeeling or callous; made obstinate or obdurate; confirmed in error or vice. 2. Rendered resistant to the effects of nearby explosions; as, a hardened missile silo; hardened warhead… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hardened — [adj] unfeeling accustomed, benumbed, callous, case hardened, coldhearted*, contemptuous, cruel, disdainful, habituated, hard as nails*, hard bitten*, hard boiled*, hardhearted*, heartless, impenetrable, impious, inaccessible, indurated, inured,… …   New thesaurus

  • hardened — index callous, cold blooded, impervious, incorrigible, inexpressive, inflexible, insusceptible (uncaring) …   Law dictionary

  • hardened —   , hardened off.   Of leaves that have completed development and are no longer soft.   See also indurate …   Expanded glossary of Cycad terms

  • hardened — [härd′ nd] adj. 1. made or become hard or harder (in various senses) 2. confirmed or inveterate, esp. in wrong or immoral behavior; habitual SYN. CHRONIC …   English World dictionary

  • hardened — hard|ened [ hardnd ] adjective someone who is hardened has had a lot of difficult or unpleasant experiences and is no longer much affected by such things: hardened criminals/convicts The attack has sickened even the most hardened of observers.… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • hardened — adjective 1. used of persons; emotionally hardened (Freq. 1) faced a case hardened judge • Syn: ↑case hardened, ↑hard boiled • Similar to: ↑hard 2. made hard or flexible or resilient especially by heat treatment …   Useful english dictionary

  • hardened — adj. (cannot stand alone) hardened to (hardened to suffering) * * * [hɑːdnd] (cannot stand alone) hardened to (hardened to suffering) …   Combinatory dictionary

  • hardened — /hahr dnd/, adj. 1. made or become hard or harder. 2. pitiless; unfeeling. 3. firmly established or unlikely to change; inveterate: a hardened criminal. 4. inured; toughened: a hardened trooper. 5. rigid; unyielding: a hardened attitude. 6. (of a …   Universalium

  • hardened — [[t]hɑ͟ː(r)d(ə)nd[/t]] ADJ GRADED: usu ADJ n If you describe someone as hardened, you mean that they have had so much experience of something bad or unpleasant that they are no longer affected by it in the way that other people would be.… …   English dictionary